Medical Air System
Medical Air System are used in hospitals to provide safe and cost-effective source of medical gases for the clinical applications. In this article, medical gases are described in terms of types and purposes. Moreover, a general overview of Medical Gases Pipeline Systems (MGPS) components and design is covered.
Medical gases are used for patient's healthcare in different ways. In the early of 1950s, healthcare providers recognised the hazards of using heavy high pressure cylinders of medical gases. Instead, Medical Air System are provided by medical gases pipeline system (MGPS). It is safe, permanent and cost-effective mean of provision. In general, medical gases are specific gases that are separated from the air individually for various medical applications. Commonly used medical gases in hospitals are
• Oxygen (O2)
• Nitrous oxide (N2O)
• Medical air 400 KPa or 4 bar (MA 4)
• Medical air 700 KPa or 7 bar (MA 7)
• Carbon dioxide (CO2)
• Nitrogen (N2)
• Medical vacuum
1. Oxygen (O2)
Oxygen is the most important gas on the earth; it formed about 21 per cent of the natural air. In application, it is used as a medical gas to sustain life. Moreover, it is used to drive anesthesia machines and ventilators in addition to other methods for manual ventilation. Three sources are used for oxygen supply; vacuum-insulated evaporator (VIE) or bulk tank, cylinders, and oxygen concentrator (PSA) system. Further, oxygen is coded in white color.
2. Nitrous oxide (N2o)
Nitrous oxide is a medical gas administrated via anesthesia machine. It is mixed with oxygen and various anesthetic agents. Therefore, operating rooms are sole location of nitrous oxide. Usually a manifold supply system is the source of nitrous oxide gas. Cylinders are coded with blue color as well as the pipelines.
3. Medical air 4 bar
In general, medical air 4 is used for respiratory applications. The source of supply can be a medical gas manifold system or a medical compressor system. The color code is black color.
4. Medical air 7bar
Medical air 7 is known as surgical air because it is used mainly to derive some surgical equipment such as tourniquet and bone saw. The supply source is similar to medical air 4.
5. Carbone dioxide (CO2)
Carbone dioxide is a medical gas used for insufflations purpose in open heart surgery and laparoscopy procedures. Usually portable cylinders are the source of CO2 which are coded with grey color.
6. Nitrogen N2
Nitrogen for surgical power tools is likely to be used only on the sites where it is available for the production of synthetic air.
7. Medical vacuum
Medical vacuum is provided by means of a vacuum central plant. The vacuum system should always be used in conjunction with vacuum control units that include vacuum jars. In fact, it is not a gas, it is a negative pressure used for suctioning patients and for anesthetic gas scavenging system. Typically, vacuum is delivered at pressure of 400 mmHg (53 KPa) below atmospheric pressure. Vacuum pipes are known with its yellow color.